How is Balantidium coli diagnosed?
Diagnosis is based on detection of trophozoites in stool samples from symptomatic patients or in tissue collected during endoscopy. Cysts are less frequently encountered, and are most likely to be recovered from formed stool. Balantidium coli is passed intermittently and once outside the colon is rapidly destroyed.
Where do you find Balantidiasis?
Balantidium coli is found throughout the world, but it is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and developing countries. Because pigs are an animal reservoir, human infections occur more frequently in areas where pigs are raised, especially if good hygiene is not practiced.
What are the symptoms of Balantidiasis?
Common symptoms of Balantidiasis include chronic diarrhea, occasional dysentery (diarrhea with passage of blood or mucus), nausea, foul breath, colitis (inflammation of the colon), abdominal pain, weight loss, deep intestinal ulcerations, and possibly perforation of the intestine.
What is Balantidiasis disease?
Balantidiasis is a rare intestinal infection caused by the bacterium, Balantidium coli, a single celled parasite (ciliate protozoan) that frequently infects pigs but on occasion (rarely) infects humans.
How is Balantidium coli treated?
Treatment. Three medications are used most often to treat Balantidium coli: tetracycline, metronidazole, and iodoquinol. Tetracycline*: adults, 500 mg orally four times daily for 10 days; children ≥ 8 years old, 40 mg/kg/day (max. 2 grams) orally in four doses for 10 days.
How long does Balantidium coli last?
Some trophozoites invade the wall of the colon and multiply; some return to the lumen and disintegrate. Mature cysts are passed in the stool and can remain viable for up to two weeks in the environment .
Who are at higher risk of acquiring Balantidiasis?
Risk factors for balantidiasis include contact with pigs, handling fertilizer contaminated with pig excrement, and living in areas where the water supply may be contaminated by the excrement of infected animals. Poor nutrition, achlorhydria, alcoholism, and immunosuppression may also be contributing factors.
What is the treatment of Balantidiasis?
Three medications are used most often to treat Balantidium coli: tetracycline, metronidazole, and iodoquinol. Tetracycline*: adults, 500 mg orally four times daily for 10 days; children ≥ 8 years old, 40 mg/kg/day (max. 2 grams) orally in four doses for 10 days.
Who has higher risk of getting Balantidiasis?
What is the life cycle of Balantidium coli?
Life Cycle of Balantidium coli. Balantidium coli has 2 developmental stages: a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. (See Morphology and Transmission for further descriptions of the stages.) The cyst is the infective stage of Balantium coli life cycle.
Where is Balantidium coli found in the body?
Balantidium coli lives in the cecum and colon of humans, pigs, rats, and other mammals.
What is the causative agent of giardiasis?
Giardiasis is caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis (formerly known as G lamblia) . Infection is transmitted through ingestion of infectious G lamblia cysts.
How is the diagnosis of Balantidium coli made?
Laboratory Diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on detection of trophozoites in stool specimens or in tissue collected during endoscopy. Cysts are less frequently encountered. Balantidium coli is passed intermittently and once outside the colon is rapidly destroyed.
How often do you get Balantidium coli cysts?
Cysts are less frequently encountered. Balantidium coli is passed intermittently and once outside the colon is rapidly destroyed. Thus stool specimens should be collected repeatedly, and immediately examined or preserved to enhance detection of the parasite.
Which is the best Test to test for HIV?
1 Nucleic acid tests (NATs) — detects HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) 2 Antigen/antibody combination tests — detects HIV p24 antigen as well as HIV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies 3 Antibody tests — detects HIV IgM and/or IgG antibodies
What causes Balantidium coli cysts in wet mounts?
Invasion of urogenital tract may be caused by contamination from the anal region or through fistulae caused by severe infection. Balantidium coli cysts in wet mounts. Both Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts may be shed in stools. Both stages may occur in diarrheal stools, and usually only cysts are observed formed stools.