What is host in a virus?
The ‘Virus host’ name consists of the official organism name and, optionally, a common name and/or synonym.
What does it mean if a virus has a narrow host range?
Generally, narrow-host-range viruses are thought to infect highly abundant hosts, whereas broad-host-range viruses are assumed to infect low-abundance hosts (17, 47).
What part of a virus determines host range?
The surface of viruses includes many copies of one type of protein that binds, or adsorbs, specifically to multiple copies of a receptor protein on a host cell. This interaction determines the host range of a virus and begins the infection process (Figure 6-15).
How do viruses expand host range?
Summary: Virus multiplication continually generates new variants at a rate that is much faster than their hosts. One consequence of their higher mutation rate is that many viruses can rapidly adapt to new hosts.
What are types of host?
Types of hosts
- accidental host. a host that shelters an organism which does not usually parasitize that host.
- incidental host (a.k.a. dead-end host) a host that shelters an organism but is unable to transmit the organism to a different host.
- primary host (a.k.a. definitive/final host)
- reservoir host.
How do viruses damage host cells?
Steps of Virus Infections. A virus must use cell processes to replicate. The viral replication cycle can produce dramatic biochemical and structural changes in the host cell, which may cause cell damage. These changes, called cytopathic (causing cell damage) effects, can change cell functions or even destroy the cell.
What affects host range?
Host range is determined by different sets of factors, some extrinsic to the pathogen, related to its ecology and epidemiology, and others intrinsic to the pathogen, such as genetic traits that determine its fitness in different hosts.
What is broad host range?
The broad-host-range (BHR) plasmids have been defined as those plasmids that can self-transfer themselves and can stably replicate and maintain in bacterial species from at least two subgroups within the Proteobacteria (e.g., between α- and β- Proteobacteria) (Szpirer et al., 1999; Sen et al., 2011).
What is the host range?
Host range describes the breadth of organisms a parasite is capable of infecting, with limits on host range stemming from parasite, host, or environmental characteristics. Parasites can adapt to overcome host or environmental limitations, while hosts can adapt to control the negative impact of parasites.
Which plant virus has the widest host range?
For example, CMV (Bromoviridae) is an important plant pathogen with the widest host-range of all known plant viruses, and worldwide distribution. The virus is transmitted by no less than 60 different species of aphids, or via seeds or dodder.
Is Ebola a DNA or RNA virus?
The virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus consists of a single-stranded RNA with a molecular weight of approximately 4.0 x 10(6).
What is the host range of a virus?
A virus’ host range is the range of cell types and host species a virus is able to infect. The host range or host specificity of a parasite is the collection of hosts that an organism can use as a partner.
What is the host specificity of a parasite?
The host range or host specificity of a parasite is the collection of hosts that an organism can use as a partner. The host range is usually a function of an inability of the virus to successfully adsorb and/or enter cells because of an incompatibility between virus capsid proteins (or virus envelope proteins) and the host receptor molecule.
Which is capable of infecting only a limited range of hosts?
Ecotropic pathogens, on the other hand, are only capable of infecting a narrow range of hosts and host tissue. Knowledge of a pathogen’s host specificity allows professionals in the research and medical industries to model pathogenesis and develop vaccines, medication, and preventative measures to fight against infection.
How does host range affect the epidemiology of a disease?
In the case of human parasites, the host range influences the epidemiology of the parasitism or disease. For instance, the production of antigenic shifts in Influenza A virus can result from pigs being infected with the virus from several different hosts (such as human and bird).