What does ERK1 2 mean?
extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade is a central signaling pathway that regulates a wide variety of stimulated cellular processes, including mainly proliferation, differentiation, and survival, but apoptosis and stress response as well.
What are ERK1 and ERK2?
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 Two similar protein kinases with 85% sequence identity were originally called ERK1 and ERK2. They were found during a search for protein kinases that are rapidly phosphorylated after activation of cell surface tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor.
What is MAP kinase phosphorylate?
MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array of stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines. They regulate cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival, and apoptosis.
What is Ras MAP kinase pathway?
The Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway is probably the best characterized signal transduction pathway in cell biology. The function of this pathway is to transduce signals from the extracellular milieu to the cell nucleus where specific genes are activated for cell growth, division and differentiation.
What does kinase mean?
Listen to pronunciation. (KY-nays) A type of enzyme (a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body) that adds chemicals called phosphates to other molecules, such as sugars or proteins. This may cause other molecules in the cell to become either active or inactive.
What MEK stand for?
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
What is the function of ERK?
ERK cascade plays a crucial role in multiple cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and survival. Therefore, it is essential for many physiological events including development, immunity, metabolism, and memory formation.
What is the function of MAP kinase?
Summary: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular responses. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK enzymes that coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.
What is the main point of the kinase cascade?
MAP kinases are activated within protein kinase cascades that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. In mammals, MAP kinases are grouped into three families: ERKs, JNKs, and p38/SAPKs.
What is the function of RAS?
RAS proteins are important for normal development. Active RAS drives the growth, proliferation, and migration of cells. In normal cells RAS receives signals and obeys those signals to rapidly switch between the active (GTP) form and the inactive (GDP form) states.
What is the purpose of kinase?
Kinases are used extensively to transmit signals and regulate complex processes in cells. Phosphorylation of molecules can enhance or inhibit their activity and modulate their ability to interact with other molecules.
What is creatine kinase test used for?
A creatine kinase (CK) test may be used to detect inflammation of muscles (myositis) or muscle damage due to muscle disorders (myopathies) such as muscular dystrophy or to help diagnose rhabdomyolysis if a person has signs and symptoms.
How are ERK1 and ERK2 MAP kinases related?
ERK1/2 MAP kinases: structure, function, and regulation ERK1 and ERK2 are related protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade.
Where did the name ERK1 and ERK2 come from?
Two similar (85% sequence identity) protein kinases were originally called ERK1 and ERK2. They were found during a search for protein kinases that are rapidly phosphorylated after activation of cell surface tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Where does the signal from the MAPK / ERK pathway go?
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
What are the functions of MAP kinases in the cell?
MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals.