What is hepatitis D and E?

Sources: Humans are the reservoir for hepatitis D, which is usually transmitted by contact with blood or body fluids, particularly sharing drug paraphernalia. Humans and animals (swine) are the reservoir for hepatitis E which is transmitted most commonly through fecally contaminated food, water, and environment.

What kind of virus is hepatitis D?

Hepatitis D, also known as the hepatitis delta virus, is an infection that causes the liver to become inflamed. This swelling can impair liver function and cause long-term liver problems, including liver scarring and cancer. The condition is caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV).

How did hepatitis D start?

History. Hepatitis D virus was first reported in 1977 as a nuclear antigen in patients infected with HBV who had severe liver disease. This nuclear antigen was then thought to be a hepatitis B antigen and was called the delta antigen.

Is Hep D DNA or RNA virus?

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus which requires the help of hepatitis B virus (HBV) virus for its replication and assembly of new virions. HDV genome contains only one actively transcribed open reading frame which encodes for two isoforms of hepatitis delta antigen.

What does hepatitis E do to the body?

What is hepatitis E? Hepatitis E is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can damage organs.

Is Hepatitis E an STD?

Hepatitis E has not been reported to be a sexually transmitted disease (STDs). However, it may be possible that we aren’t aware of it yet because it is so uncommon in areas with clean water and sanitation. Hepatitis A spreads the same way as hepatitis E, except it has been transmitted by mouth-to-anus (oral-anal) sex.

Why is hepatitis D defective?

Hepatitis D is caused by the HDV, which is a unique virus with defective replication processes. Because it cannot replicate like other viruses, it requires co-infection with chronic HBV in order to survive and replicate. HDV is a single-stranded RNA virus and only codes for 2 proteins (HDV large and small antigen).

Who is at risk for hepatitis D?

Chronic HBV carriers are at risk of infection with HDV. People who are not immune to HBV (either by natural disease or immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine) are at risk of infection with HBV, which puts them at risk of HDV infection.

Is hepatitis virus the smallest virus?

Hepatitis Viruses HDV is the smallest virus known to infect human. In fact, HDV is a satellite virus of HBV, which provides the envelope proteins that are essential for HDV assembly (Fig.

What is the fastest way to cure hepatitis E?

Hepatitis E usually resolves on its own without treatment. There is no specific antiviral therapy for acute hepatitis E. Physicians should offer supportive therapy.

How long is hepatitis E contagious?

Hepatitis E is contagious from one week before symptoms start to four weeks afterward. Some people have no symptoms or signs and do not know they are contagious with the infection. Hepatitis E is diagnosed by blood and stool (feces) tests.

How long does it take to recover from hepatitis E?

The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within 2–6 weeks. Occasionally a serious disease known as fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure) develops, which can be fatal.

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